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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with and without COPD based on spirometry

From: Serial pulmonary function tests to diagnose COPD in chronic heart failure

  All (n = 187) No COPD (n = 127) COPD (n = 60) P-value
Age, years 69 ± 10 68 ± 11 70 ± 9 0.173
Male sex, n (%) 146 (78) 94 (74) 52 (87) 0.051
BMI, kg/m2 28 ± 5 29 ± 5 28 ± 5 0.064
LVEF, % 29 ± 7 29 ± 7 29 ± 7 0.401
NYHA class, %     
NYHA I-II 164 (88) 114 (90) 50 (83) 0.211
NYHA III-IV 23 (12) 13 (10) 10 (17) 0.211
Ischaemic aetiology 110 (59) 71 (56) 39 (65) 0.238
Smoking history, n (%)     0.008
Non-smoker 32 (17) 29 (23) 3 (5)  
Current smoker 23 (12) 13 (10) 10 (17)  
Former smoker 132 (71) 85 (67) 47 (78)  
PY, years 24 ± 24 21 ± 21 30 ± 28 0.016
Co-morbidity, n (%)     
Myocardial infarction 109 (58) 71 (56) 38 (63) 0.336
Atrial fibrillation 54 (29) 38 (30) 16 (27) 0.647
Hypertension 80 (43) 51 (40) 29 (48) 0.291
Diabetes mellitus 46 (25) 33 (26) 13 (22) 0.522
PCI/CABG 76 (41) 48 (38) 28 (47) 0.249
CRT/ICD 64 (34) 49 (39) 15 (25) 0.068
Medication, n (%)     
ACE-I/ARB 174 (93) 119 (94) 55 (92) 0.759
β-blockers 172 (92) 116 (91) 56 (93) 0.778
± Selective 99 (58) 66 (57) 33 (59) 0.801
± Non-selective 73 (42) 50 (43) 23 (41) 0.801
Diuretics 159 (85) 107 (84) 52 (87) 0.666
Aldosterone-antagonists 65 (35) 47 (37) 18 (30) 0.348
ICS/OCS 26 (14) 9 (7) 17 (28) 0.000
β-agonists 29 (16) 7 (6) 22 (37) 0.000
Anticholinergics 29 (16) 6 (5) 23 (38) 0.000
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD and number (%).
  2. Abbreviations: ACE-I/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRT/ICD cardiac resynchronisation therapy/implantable cardioverter defibrillator, ICS/OCS inhalation/oral corticosteroids, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA New York Heart Association, PCI/CABG percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass grafting, PY pack-years.